The Shift from VPNs to ZTNA

By Jaye Tillson, Field CTO, Distinguished Technologist, HPE Aruba Networking [ Join Cybersecurity Insiders ]

In recent years, the landscape of remote work and cybersecurity has undergone significant changes, driving organizations to reevaluate their reliance on traditional Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). The 2024 VPN Risk Report, compiled by Cybersecurity Insiders in collaboration with HPE Aruba Networking, provides an in-depth analysis of the challenges associated with VPNs and highlights the growing shift towards Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) as a more secure and efficient alternative.

The Limitations of VPNs in Modern Work Environments

VPNs have long been the cornerstone of remote access solutions, offering a secure tunnel for data transmission between remote users and corporate networks. However, the report underscores several critical limitations becoming increasingly problematic as organizations adopt more dynamic and distributed work models.

1. Security Vulnerabilities: A staggering 92% of survey respondents expressed concern that VPNs might compromise their ability to maintain a secure environment. VPNs often provide broad access to corporate networks, meaning that once a malicious actor breaches a VPN, they can potentially access sensitive data and systems with little restriction. This wide-access model is at odds with the principle of least privilege, which is central to modern cybersecurity practices​​.

2. User Dissatisfaction: The report reveals that 81% of users are dissatisfied with their VPN experience, citing issues such as slow connections and frequent disconnections. This poor user experience affects productivity and increases the likelihood of users seeking unsecured workarounds, further jeopardizing security​​.

3. Management Complexity: Managing VPNs can be complex and resource-intensive. With 65% of organizations operating three or more VPN gateways to support their remote users, the administrative burden on IT teams is significant. This complexity can lead to configuration errors and oversight, further elevating security risks​​.

4. Scalability Issues: As organizations grow and their remote workforces expand, scaling VPN infrastructure to meet these demands becomes increasingly challenging. The high costs associated with scaling and maintaining VPNs and their inherent limitations make them a less viable solution for large, dynamic enterprises​​.

The Rise of Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)

Given VPNs’ limitations, many organizations are turning to ZTNA as a more robust solution for secure remote access. ZTNA operates on the principle of “never trust, always verify,” ensuring that every access request is continuously authenticated and authorized based on various contextual factors.

1. Enhanced Security: Unlike VPNs, ZTNA enforces granular access controls, allowing users to access only the resources they need for their roles. This minimizes the attack surface and reduces the risk of lateral movement within the network in case of a breach. The report indicates that 75% of organizations view Zero Trust as a priority, recognizing its potential to enhance security in a distributed work environment​​.

2. Improved User Experience: ZTNA solutions are designed to provide seamless access to applications regardless of the user’s location without the performance issues commonly associated with VPNs. This leads to higher user satisfaction and productivity. By leveraging cloud-native architectures, ZTNA can offer more reliable and faster connections than traditional VPNs​​.

3. Simplified Management: ZTNA reduces the complexity of managing remote access by centralizing policy enforcement and leveraging automated tools for monitoring and threat detection. This streamlined approach allows IT teams to focus on strategic initiatives rather than routine maintenance tasks​​.

4. Scalability and Flexibility: ZTNA solutions are inherently scalable, making them suitable for organizations of all sizes. They can easily accommodate an increasing number of remote users and integrate with various cloud services and applications. This flexibility is crucial as more businesses adopt hybrid and multi-cloud environments​​.

The Future of Remote Access

The 2024 VPN Risk Report provides compelling evidence that the era of VPNs as the primary solution for remote access is waning. With 59% of organizations having adopted or planning to adopt ZTNA within the next two years, the shift is well underway​​.

As cyber threats evolve and the demand for secure, efficient remote access grows, businesses must reassess their current strategies and consider more modern solutions like ZTNA. This transition enhances security and aligns with the broader digital transformation goals of agility, scalability, and user-centric design.


The insights from the 2024 VPN Risk Report highlight a critical inflection point in remote access and cybersecurity. The persistent issues associated with VPNs—security vulnerabilities, poor user experience, management complexity, and scalability challenges—underscore the need for a more practical approach.

Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) emerges as a compelling alternative, offering enhanced security, improved user experience, simplified management, and greater scalability. As organizations navigate this transition, ZTNA adoption is poised to become a cornerstone of modern cybersecurity strategies, ensuring robust protection in an increasingly interconnected world.


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