New Report Reveals Insider Threat Trends, Challenges, and Solutions

By Holger Schulze
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Insider threats, driven by personal motivations and enabled by the rapid evolution of technology and changing hybrid work environments, present a critical challenge to organizational security. Addressing these threats requires a sophisticated, multi faceted approach that combines advanced detection technologies, continuous  monitoring, and a strong emphasis on employee training and awareness.

A new report by Cybersecurity Insiders and Securonix, based on a survey of 467 cybersecurity professionals, uncovers the nature of insider threat challenges faced by organizations, focusing on understanding the factors driving these  threats, their detection and mitigation complexities, and the effectiveness of insider threat programs.

The report provides intriguing insights into how organizations are adapting their strategies and solutions to effectively counter evolving internal security risks:

  • Rise in Insider Attacks: From 2019 to 2024, the number of organizations reporting insider attacks increased from  66% of organizations to 76%, indicating a substantial increase in detected insider threats. Notably, there’s a rise  in incidents with multiple attacks per year, underscoring the urgent need for enhanced detection and mitigation  strategies, including continuous monitoring and proactive defenses.
  • High-Risk Insiders and Motivations: There has been a marked increase in concern for malicious insiders, rising  from 60% in 2019 to 74% in 2024, indicating a heightened awareness or experience of intentional insider attacks.  Financial gain leads the list of motivations organizations are most concerned about.
  • Detecting Insider vs. External Attacks: 90% of respondents report insider attacks as equally or more  challenging to detect than external attacks, highlighting the complexity of insider threats. Only 16% of  organizations consider themselves extremely effective in handling insider threats, an improvement from 11% in  2019, yet there is still significant room for enhancing threat management strategies.
  • Ransomware Threat: 76% of organizations report an increasing prevalence of ransomware and triple extortion  techniques in their environments, highlighting a growing cybersecurity concern. Information disclosure (56%)  and unauthorized data operations (48%) are also leading concerns, emphasizing the importance of data-centric  security measures and robust identity and access management controls.
  • Hybrid Work and Evolving Tech: 70% of respondents express concern about insider risks in hybrid work  contexts, reflecting the challenges of securing distributed, less controlled environments. A majority of 75% are  concerned about the impact of emerging technologies like AI, the Metaverse, and Quantum Computing on insider  threats, indicating worries about their misuse and the potential to amplify threat capabilities.
  • Insider Threat Program Maturity: While 66% of organizations feel vulnerable to insider attacks, 41% of  organizations have only partially implemented insider threat programs, pointing to a lack of comprehensive  activity monitoring and advanced threat management. Only 29% of respondents feel fully equipped with the right  tools to protect against insider threats, indicating a significant gap in many organizations’ security capabilities.

Insider vs External Attacks

The perception of the difficulty in detecting and preventing insider attacks, as compared to external cyber  attacks, has shifted noticeably in the last 5 years. In 2024, an overwhelming majority of 90% of respondents report that insider attacks are as difficult (53%) or  more difficult (37%) to detect and prevent compared to external attacks, up from a combined 50% who held  this view in 2019. This significant increase suggests a growing awareness of the subtlety and complexity of  insider threats compared to external ones.

Malicious insider threats, characterized by otherwise legitimate users exploiting their access and deep  organizational knowledge, present unique detection challenges. These insiders navigate around security  policies and controls to mask their malicious activities within normal operations. Their familiarity with security  practices, coupled with the trust they’re afforded and the growing shift to remote work scenarios, further  complicates the differentiation between benign and malicious actions. In contrast to external threats, which  often exhibit more apparent indicators of compromise, insider activities necessitate a more sophisticated  approach to detection, underscoring the need for advanced, nuanced methods to identify these subtle threats.

To address the inherent difficulty in detecting and preventing insider threats, organizations should consider  implementing advanced security solutions that offer deep visibility into user behaviors and activities. This  includes employing behavioral analytics and sophisticated monitoring techniques to detect even subtle signs of  insider threats. Furthermore, organizations should foster a culture of security awareness and adopt a layered  security approach that integrates both technical and administrative controls to manage both insider and  external threats effectively.

Shifting Insider Threat Concerns 

Insider threats represent a significant and evolving challenge for organizations. It is critically important to  understand the most prevalent types of insider threats to best align defensive strategies and programs for  effective insider threat management.

The survey data indicates a shift in the perception of insider threats over the last 5 years. There has been  a marked increase in concern for malicious insiders, rising from 60% in 2019 to 74% in 2024, indicating a  heightened awareness or experience of intentional insider attacks. However, concerns about inadvertent  insider incidents have slightly decreased from 71% in 2019 to 63% in 2024, perhaps indicating improved training,  awareness, policy, and technological safeguards within some organizations or across some sectors.

Organizations should continue to enhance their strategies against malicious insiders by investing in advanced  behavioral analytics and insider threat detection systems. It’s also crucial to emphasize employee training and  maintain a culture of security awareness to prevent inadvertent and negligent incidents.

Changing Insider Motives 

Understanding the motives driving malicious insiders, the primary insider threat concern identified in our  survey, is key to crafting effective countermeasures and risk management strategies. The evolution of these  motivations over the past 5 years, particularly the dramatic rise in concerns regarding personal benefit,  underscores changing personal dynamics and external influences on risk profiles.

The most notable change in the past 5 years is the dramatic increase in concerns regarding personal benefit  as an insider motive, which has risen from rank #6 in 2019 (15%) to #2 in 2024 (47%). Traditional fears such as  financial motivations (50%) and revenge (45%) remain high, while sabotage decreased slightly (from 43% to 40%  respectively). Notably, a significant increase in insider threats for reputational damage (from 8% to 37%) reflects  the growing importance of public perception.

Organizations should consider implementing insider threat programs that include psychological elements and  incentives alignment to counteract the risk of employees being swayed by personal gain or external influences.  It’s also crucial to foster a culture where ethical conduct and reporting of suspicious activities are encouraged  and rewarded.

Insider Attack Vectors 

The methods by which insider attacks are carried out have significant implications for organizational security.  A nuanced understanding of these methods assists in preemptively addressing potential insider attacks and  reducing the attack surface.

The leading concern is information disclosure at 56%, underscoring the primacy of protecting sensitive data  against mishandling. Unauthorized data operations comes in second at 48% (including data tampering and  destruction), reflecting unease about the multitude of ways data can be misused. Credential and account abuse  follows closely at 47% (such as credential sharing or unauthorized access), spotlighting the vulnerability that  comes with improper credential management and the potential for significant damage via privilege escalation.

Security evasion and bypass (45%), along with software and code manipulation (44%), are also major concerns,  indicating apprehension about the ingenuity of insider threats in circumventing policy and security controls. To  address these attack vectors, organizations should double down on data-centric security measures and robust identity and access management (IAM) controls. Regular audits, coupled with advanced analytics to detect  anomalies in user behavior, can prove pivotal in early identification and mitigation of these threats.

Critical Data at Risk 

The types of data most at risk to insider attacks reflect both the value and accessibility of that information  within an organization.

Financial data is perceived as the most vulnerable, with 44% of respondents highlighting it, likely due to  its direct monetization potential. Customer data, at 41%, follows closely, pointing to concerns over the loss  of personally identifiable information (PII). Employee data is also a significant concern at 37%, signaling  an awareness of the risks posed by the mishandling of sensitive personnel information. It is notable that  a considerable 31% believe all company-sensitive data is susceptible, reflecting a broader concern for  organizational data security.

Proactive measures such as data access controls, encryption, and employee training can mitigate the risk of  insider attacks and threats to data confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Emphasizing the protection of the  most vulnerable financial, customer, and employee data as part of a comprehensive data security strategy is  imperative.

Heightened Vulnerability Awareness 

Assessing an organization’s susceptibility to insider threats is a critical barometer of its security posture. The  evolving perceptions of vulnerability reflect changing threat landscapes and internal security measures.

In 2019, the combined percentage of organizations feeling at least moderately vulnerable was 69%, compared  to 66% in 2024. However, the leap in those perceiving extreme vulnerability from 5% in 2019 to 16% in 2024  signals heightened awareness or potentially an increase in threat activity.

Hybrid Workforce Insider Threats 

The shift towards hybrid working models has led to a reevaluation of insider risk perceptions due to the  expanded threat surface and altered work dynamics. The level of concern reflects the complexity of managing  security in less controlled environments.

Collectively, 70% of respondents express at least moderate concern about insider threats in the context of  hybrid work, with 18% being extremely concerned and 20% significantly concerned. This indicates a strong  awareness of the potential for increased insider threats as traditional office boundaries are blurred. The  moderate concern at 32% suggests that while some are aware of the risks, they may feel somewhat prepared  to manage them.

Ransomware and Triple Extortion Techniques 

The rising trend in triple extortion techniques can be partially attributed to various insider threat-related  issues, including negligence, lack of training, misuse of access and international collaboration, and challenges  of secure remote working environments.

Tech Revolution Raises Alarm

Emerging technologies like AI, the Metaverse, and Quantum Computing pose new challenges in cybersecurity,  potentially reshaping the threat landscape with their capabilities and complexities.

A majority of 75% of survey respondents harbor at least moderate concern about the impact of emerging  technologies on insider threats, with 19% being extremely concerned. It’s clear that the misuse of AI by  insiders is a significant worry, given AI’s potential to amplify threat capabilities. The Metaverse introduces new  dimensions of data integration and storage, raising concerns about the exploitation of its nascent security  protocols for novel attacks by insiders. Meanwhile, Quantum Computing, although a future concern, looms over  current encryption methods, with the potential for insiders to break encryption and gain access to sensitive  data by harnessing quantum computing power.

To navigate these concerns, companies should invest in research and training focused on the security  challenges posed by emerging technologies and should integrate adaptive security measures that can evolve  with these advancements.

Rise in Insider Attacks 

The frequency of insider attacks is a crucial indicator of the internal threat environment and an organization’s  defensive posture against such incidents. From 2019 to 2024, there’s been a noticeable decrease in  organizations reporting no insider attacks, from 34% down to 24%. This suggests a significant overall increase in  detected insider threat activities for 76% of organizations (up from 66% in 2019).

While the most common attack frequency, 1-5 attacks, decreased from 44% to 31%, there is a significant rise  in the 6-10 attacks category, jumping from 14% to 26%. An even more pronounced jump occurred in the 11-20  attacks bracket, from 5% to 17%, indicating a rise in organizations experiencing multiple incidents within a year.

Organizations should intensify their focus on insider threat detection and mitigation strategies, investing in  technologies and processes that can scale with this apparent increase in incident frequency. The trend towards  more frequent attacks underlines the need for continuous monitoring and proactive defense mechanisms.

40% of respondents observed an increase in the frequency of insider attacks over the last year, pointing  to a dynamic threat landscape where internal risks are growing. In contrast, 35% report no change, which  could suggest effective current security measures or a stable threat environment. Meanwhile, 25% perceive a  decrease in frequency, potentially indicating successful interventions or improvements in their cybersecurity  posture.

Catalysts of Insider Attacks 

Understanding the main drivers behind the observed escalation in insider attacks helps organizations to tailor  their defensive strategies more effectively and address the root causes.

The survey highlights a lack of training and awareness as the top enabler for insider attacks, with 37% of  respondents citing it. This underlines the necessity of comprehensive security awareness programs. The  complexity of global operations and new technologies (such as IoT and AI) is also a significant factor, mentioned  by 34%, suggesting that the rapid tech adoption outpaces security measures. Inadequate security measures  and complex IT environments are acknowledged by 29% and 27% of respondents, respectively, emphasizing the  need for robust data protection and streamlined IT practices. Disgruntled insiders are seen as a key risk by 25%  of participants, indicating the importance of employee satisfaction and engagement.

Cultivating a Security-Conscious Workforce 

Effective cybersecurity hinges significantly on employee training, especially for reducing insider threats.  Although 53% of organizations provide insider risk training, the remaining 47% overlook a key aspect of their  security strategy. Training is essential for equipping employees with the understanding and skills needed to  identify and mitigate potential security risks, even those arising from routine activities.

Such training cultivates a strong security culture, ensuring staff are not only prepared to prevent incidents  but also respond effectively when they occur. This is crucial for compliance with data protection and privacy  regulations. Empowering employees through training also leads to a notable decrease in accidental threats,  often caused by unawareness rather than intent.

Further, trained employees are better equipped to handle remote work challenges, comply with regulations,  and use technology securely. Implementing insider threat awareness programs should be a top priority for  organizations, enhancing their overall security framework and ingraining a sustainable, security-centric mindset  across the workforce.

Insider Threat Program Maturity 

The maturity of an organization’s insider threat program is a critical measure of its capability to identify and  mitigate internal security risks.

The survey reveals that a substantial 41% of organizations are at a stage where their insider threat program is  only partially implemented, indicating they have foundational tools and policies but lack comprehensive activity  monitoring. This is followed by 20% who are currently developing or pilot testing their programs, showing a  proactive approach towards establishing more robust insider threat management. Interestingly, only 21% report  having a fully operational program in place, demonstrating a strong commitment to advanced monitoring and  periodic assessments.

Organizations should strive to advance their insider threat programs through these stages, aiming for full  implementation to ensure comprehensive internal security.

Insider Threat Management Effectiveness 

The effectiveness of an organization in managing insider threats is a crucial indicator of its security posture and  resilience. In 2024, an alarming majority of 54% report their insider threat programs are less than effective, virtually  unchanged from the 56% who held this view in 2019.

However, 16% of organizations consider themselves extremely effective in handling insider threats today, up  from 11% in 2019. This improvement suggests that some organizations have enhanced their insider threat  programs, possibly incorporating more advanced technologies and refined processes. About a third of  organizations, 30% today compared to 33% in 2019, rate themselves as very effective.

The category of “somewhat effective” remains the largest, with a minor decrease from 40% to 38% in 2024.  This consistency suggests that while many organizations are making efforts, there’s still room for improvement  in their threat management strategies. Concurrently, the percentages for not very effective (14%) and not at  all effective (2%) also remained unchanged over the five years. This stagnation points to a large cohort of  organizations that continue to struggle with insider threat management, possibly due to resource constraints,  lack of expertise, or insufficient prioritization of insider threats.


Insider Threat Program Drivers 

The reasons behind the implementation or enhancement of an organization’s Insider Threat Program reflect the  complex interplay of internal motivations and external pressures in shaping cybersecurity strategies.

Management directives are the leading motivator, cited by 40% of respondents. This top-down approach  underscores the critical role of executive leadership in prioritizing and driving cybersecurity initiatives. Close  behind, 38% indicate that regulatory and governance requirements are key factors, reflecting the influence of  legal and compliance pressures in shaping security programs.

Proactive team initiatives, highlighted by 31%, show the importance of security and IT teams in recognizing  and acting upon internal risk factors. This is a positive indication of operational teams taking ownership of  cybersecurity challenges. Insurance requirements are also a significant driver, mentioned by 29%, pointing to  the growing impact of cyber liability insurance in dictating security standards. Incident-based motivations, at  28%, suggest that experiencing or suspecting internal security incidents is a strong catalyst for action.

Interestingly, 22% of participants report having no formalized insider threat program, which could be due to a  variety of reasons ranging from resource limitations to a lack of perceived need. Organizations should consider  these diverse factors when developing or enhancing their Insider Threat Programs, balancing internal initiatives  with external requirements and influences to create a robust and responsive security posture.

Insider Threat Tool Effectiveness 

The right tools for protecting sensitive information and systems from insider threats are crucial. In the survey, only 29% of organizations feel fully equipped with the necessary tools to handle insider threats,  highlighting significant room for improvement in many enterprises’ security toolkits. The largest segment,  52%, acknowledges having some tools but also identifies gaps, indicating a widespread need for more  comprehensive solutions that can provide deeper insights into user behaviors and potential threats. Meanwhile,  19% of organizations lack critical tools for effective monitoring and protection, indicating a significant  vulnerability.

To bridge these gaps, organizations should consider adopting advanced security solutions that offer deep  visibility into user activities and behaviors. These technologies can enhance the detection of anomalous  behaviors and facilitate a proactive response to potential insider threats.

User Behavior Monitoring 

User behavior monitoring for security purposes is a critical aspect of cybersecurity, reflecting an organization’s  capability to preemptively identify and mitigate insider threats.

The survey reveals varied approaches among organizations: 30% of organizations have implemented continuous  monitoring using automated tools, offering the most effective real-time surveillance and anomaly detection.  This proactive strategy is paramount for early threat detection and response. In contrast, 26% rely on incident based monitoring, indicating a reactive approach that focuses on analyzing user behavior post-incident for  forensic purposes. While useful for understanding insider activity, it lacks preventive capabilities.

20% of respondents maintain only basic access logs, providing minimal insights and lacking depth for  comprehensive threat analysis. 15% conduct conditional monitoring under specific circumstances or for  particular users, offering targeted but limited coverage. Notably, 7% are still in the planning phase of  implementing user behavior monitoring, acknowledging its importance but yet to operationalize it.

These findings highlight the importance of continuous and proactive user behavior monitoring in the current  cybersecurity landscape. Organizations, especially those without robust monitoring systems, should prioritize  developing and implementing comprehensive user behavior monitoring solutions to enhance their security  posture against insider threats.


Balancing Privacy and Security in User Monitoring 

User privacy in monitoring insider threats is a complex and nuanced issue that requires careful consideration of  both individual rights and the need for organizational protection.

A majority of 66% view user privacy as a priority. For a significant 41% of respondents, user privacy is a major  concern, indicating that many organizations prioritize safeguarding individual rights while monitoring for insider  threats. This approach likely involves strict adherence to privacy laws and ethical guidelines, ensuring that  security measures do not infringe on personal privacy rights.

This is followed by 25% who acknowledge user privacy as a concern but not the sole focus of their monitoring  programs. This response suggests a more balanced approach where user privacy is important, but it is weighed  alongside other factors like organizational security and threat detection efficiency. 20% indicate that their  approach to user privacy depends on specific circumstances or threat levels. This might involve a dynamic  strategy where privacy considerations vary based on the context, such as the severity of the perceived threat  or specific regulatory requirements. 8% consider user privacy a minor concern, secondary to organizational  security. This stance suggests that while privacy is not disregarded, it takes a backseat in the face of insider  threat risks.

Only 7% do not consider user privacy at all when monitoring for insider threats, reflecting a stance that prioritizes  organizational security above all else. This approach might be more prevalent in sectors where security is of  paramount importance, but it risks non-compliance with privacy regulations and ethical standards.

Organizations should strive for a balanced approach that respects user privacy while effectively managing  insider threats. Adopting transparent policies, ensuring compliance with data protection regulations, and  employing minimally invasive monitoring techniques can help maintain this balance. Solutions that provide  advanced threat detection while safeguarding user privacy, such as anonymizing data or using aggregated  analytics, can be beneficial. This approach not only aligns with legal and ethical standards but also fosters a  culture of trust and respect within the organization.


Overcoming Obstacles to Insider Threat Management 

Implementing effective insider threat management tools and strategies is critical for organizations to protect  against potential attacks and security incidents from within.

Technical complexities are the most cited barrier, with 32% of respondents grappling with data classification  and deployment issues, which can deter the effective monitoring of user activities. Compliance and privacy  issues are a close second at 31%, highlighting the difficulty in aligning security practices with legal frameworks  while maintaining employee privacy. Cost factors are a concern for 29% of organizations, as the investment in  advanced tools must be justified against tangible returns. Resource limitations, including staffing and expertise,  challenge 27% of organizations, suggesting a need for user-friendly and manageable security solutions.  Uncertainty about the effectiveness of various tools affects 22% of respondents, indicating a gap in clear,  authoritative guidance on tool efficacy.

Organizations should seek scalable and interoperable solutions that offer a balance between advanced security  features and user-friendliness. Prioritizing staff training, clear policies, and leadership support can also drive the  successful adoption of insider threat programs.


Navigating Insider Threat Challenges

The challenge of protecting against insider threats is compounded by several factors, as indicated by the  survey. Highest ranked is the rapid rate of technological change, noted by 36% of respondents, suggesting that  organizations struggle to keep pace with the security implications of new technologies. This is compounded by  data leakage risks, as 32% of organizations grapple with the use of leak-prone cloud applications and personal  devices. The complexity of securing remote work environments is a close third at 31%, reflecting the difficulties  in extending traditional security measures to home networks and personal devices used for work.

Employee awareness and training, with 29% indicating this as a challenge, highlights the need for continuous  education on evolving security threats. Additionally, 27% point to the issue of legitimate access, where  individuals with authorized access make it challenging to identify and prove malicious intent. A quarter of  respondents pinpoint detection challenges, including the difficulty in identifying rogue devices and a lack of  cloud security tools, as a significant hurdle.

To mitigate these challenges, organizations should adopt a multifaceted approach, including continuous risk  assessments, staff training programs, investment in advanced detection and response solutions, and the  development of a cohesive governance structure that integrates various security tools and practices. These  efforts should be aligned with legal and regulatory requirements and adapted to the unique risks posed by  rapid technological advancement and the complexities of modern work environments.


Best Practices for Insider Threat Management 

In an environment where insider threats are increasingly sophisticated and damaging, adopting these best  practices is essential for organizations to effectively safeguard their assets and maintain robust cybersecurity.


Research Methodology & Demographics

This 2024 Insider Threat Report is based on a comprehensive online survey of 467 cybersecurity  professionals, conducted in December 2023, to gain deep insight into the latest trends, key  challenges, and solutions for insider threat management.

The survey utilized a methodology ensuring a diverse representation of respondents, from technical  executives to IT security practitioners, across various industries and organization sizes. This  approach ensures a holistic and balanced view of the insider threat landscape, capturing insights  from different organizational perspectives and experiences.

In “Select all that apply” survey questions, the total percentage can exceed 100% because  respondents could pick more than one answer.

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