A Deep Dive into Ransomware History: From Its Origins to Modern Threats


Ransomware, a malicious form of software that encrypts or locks digital files and demands a ransom from victims in exchange for decryption, has evolved into a major cybersecurity threat. In this article, we will embark on a journey through the history of ransomware, from its early beginnings to the complex and dangerous forms we face today.

The Dawn of Ransomware

The concept of ransomware can be traced back to the late 1980s and early 1990s. The first documented instance of ransomware was the AIDS Trojan, which targeted AIDS researchers. It was distributed via floppy disks and, once activated, encrypted the victim’s files and demanded a ransom for decryption. The ransom was usually sent via regular mail, and in many cases, victims received their decryption keys after payment.

The Evolution of Ransomware

As the internet became more prevalent in the late 1990s and early 2000s, ransomware evolved. The use of encryption algorithms improved, making it more difficult for victims to recover their files without paying. GPCoder, the first example of a ransomware encrypting files, emerged in 2005.

CryptoLocker and the Bitcoin Connection

One of the most significant milestones in ransomware history was the emergence of Crypto Locker in 2013. It marked the shift from relatively simple ransomware to a more sophisticated, encryption-based model. Crypto Locker also introduced the use of Bitcoin for ransom payments, making it more challenging for law enforcement to trace the money.

The Rise of Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS)

Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) started to gain traction around 2015. This allowed individuals with minimal technical skills to launch ransomware attacks using pre-designed malware and payment infrastructure, sharing profits with the malware creators. Popular RaaS strains included Tox, Fakben, and Satan.

Notable Ransomware Attacks

Over the years, several high-profile ransomware attacks have garnered significant attention:

1. WannaCry (2017): A global ransomware attack that exploited a Microsoft Windows vulnerability, affecting over 200,000 computers in 150 countries.

2. NotPetya (2017): Initially disguised as ransomware, NotPetya turned out to be a wiper that aimed to cause destruction rather than financial gain. It severely impacted Ukrainian infrastructure.

3. Ryuk (2018): Known for its precise targeting and high ransom demands, Ryuk has targeted major organizations and critical infrastructure worldwide.

4. Maze (2019): Maze operators introduced the “double extortion” tactic, stealing data be-fore encrypting it and threatening to leak it if the ransom was not paid.

Modern Ransomware Threats

Today, ransomware has grown into a sophisticated and lucrative criminal enterprise. Groups like REvil, DarkSide, and Conti have extorted millions of dollars from victims. Modern ransomware often includes advanced features like encryption, data theft, and exfiltration, and perpetrators frequently target critical infrastructure and large corporations.


Ransomware’s evolution from simple, early attacks to the complex, destructive threats of today reflects the ever-changing landscape of cybersecurity. To protect against this growing menace, individuals and organizations must invest in robust cybersecurity measures, regularly backup data, and stay informed about the latest ransomware threats and prevention strategies. As ransomware continues to adapt and evolve, our defenses must evolve with it.

Naveen Goud is a writer at Cybersecurity Insiders covering topics such as Mergers & Acquisitions, Startups, Cyber Attacks, Cloud Security and Mobile Security

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